“Salt Water” that’s exactly a concentration of 0.9% salt, specifically called “Normal Saline”.ย  This is the concentration of all the fluids in our body.ย  There’s no problem injecting fluid that’s this concentration.ย  But if we inject fluid with higher salt concentration, it can cause serious dehydration.ย  If we inject 100% water, it can overwhelm ourContinue reading “Saline”

Irregular Uterine Bleeding

Irregular bleeding can mean lifelong history of irregular periods, regular periods with spotting in-between, changes in the length of periods, or bleeding after menopause.  The worst condition, which is often the focus of diagnostic studies, is cancer. As mentioned elsewhere, bleeding conditions can originate from the vagina, which is easily noted on Pelvic Exam. HereContinue reading “Irregular Uterine Bleeding”

Painful Periods (Dysmenorrhea) — Full Text

Here we’re talking about painful periods that occur time after time.  We’re not talking about a new symptom that never happened before.  If that occurs & the pain is bad enough for a woman to seek medical care, we address it as pain with bleeding, not “painful period” (see Low Abdominal Pain). Painful periods (dysmenorrhea)Continue reading “Painful Periods (Dysmenorrhea) — Full Text”

Painful Menstrual Periods (Dysmenorrhea)

Many women have pain during their periods.ย  If this begins during teenage years, there is probably no underlying illness involved.ย  If it begins after 25, weโ€™d have concern for a specific cause. If periods are especially heavy, see also our topic Heavy Menstrual Periods. Painful periods are rarely if ever due to anything that wouldContinue reading “Painful Menstrual Periods (Dysmenorrhea)”

Heavy Menstrual Periods — Full Text

Heavy periods are common as a woman approaches menopause, and can also happen to teenagers when their periods first begin.  Periods then can also be irregular.  At those times of life, we don’t do work-ups for unusual conditions.  But we might if periods are becoming progressively more painful (see Painful Periods), and certainly if weContinue reading “Heavy Menstrual Periods — Full Text”

Heavy Menstrual Periods

Here we discuss Heavy Regular Menstrual Periods which are not painful. If pain is a significant symptom, see Painful Periods). See also Diagrams — Female Genital System. Causes of Heavy Non-Painful Menstrual Periods โ€ข Uterine Fibroids (aka leiomyomas)โ€ข Adenomyosisโ€ข Hypothyroidismโ€ข Copper IUD (ParaGardยฎ, etc.)   โ€ข Bleeding Disorders (various diseases; esp. xxxxVon Willebrand Disease, alsoContinue reading “Heavy Menstrual Periods”

Involuntary Weight Loss — Full Text

Worrisome involuntary weight loss (losing weight without trying) is defined as losing >5% of normal body weight within 6 months.  Of course, losing it sooner is even worse.  Obese patients who lose weight always make us worry, since theyโ€™d never been successful before.  If they can’t describe in depth how theyโ€™ve managed, we start toContinue reading “Involuntary Weight Loss — Full Text”

Frequent Urination

Here, our first step is to rule out infection (UTI; or STDโ€™s: See โ€œPainful Urinationโ€ for either Women or Men).  But if there is no pain, no suggestion of white blood cells in the Urinalysis (UA), STD tests are negative and no bacteria grow on Urine Culture, we address other conditions. Urinary Frequency means urinatingContinue reading “Frequent Urination”

Painful Urination in Men — Full Text

We approach men completely differently from women, because men don’t often get typical urinary tract infections (UTIs) from common bacteria (we always abbreviate “Urinary Tract Infection” as “UTI,” pronounced letter-by-letter “You-Tee-Eye;” never โ€œYooteeโ€ nor โ€œOoteeโ€).  But they do get Genital Tract illness, which in males is shared with the urinary tract (see Diagram: Male GenitalContinue reading “Painful Urination in Men — Full Text”

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