Constipation — Basic Treatment

If basic treatment works for Constipation, it’s usually not necessary to perform tests. This can even be managed without a physical exam, by telemedicine. Very Basic (and Essential) Lifestyle Interventions: Increase fiber in diet Increase fluid intake Increase exercise (cardio) Simple Medications: If hard stools, options include: Stool Softeners (taken twice a day, every day).Continue reading “Constipation — Basic Treatment”

Ovulation and The Brain (& Its Diseases)

The menstrual period occurs 14 days after ovulation, when the uterus sheds the lining it had been preparing to nourish an expected pregnancy which never occurred.  High levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones from the ovary had been directing the uterus, but since there was no pregnancy, the ovary stopped producing them (โ€œprogesteroneโ€ means โ€œtoContinue reading “Ovulation and The Brain (& Its Diseases)”

Prostate Medications

There are various medication to help men with urinary symptoms that are likely related to prostate gland changes due to age (see Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy).  Generic names (brand names in parentheses) include: 1.ย  Alpha-Blockers — The most common ones are Tamsulosin (Flomaxยฎ), Terazosin (Hytrinยฎ), Doxazosin (Carduraยฎ), and Alfuzosin (Uroxatralยฎ).ย  Side effects may include dizziness uponContinue reading “Prostate Medications”

Dix-Hallpike Test and Epley Maneuver

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is due to flakes of calcium in the semicircular canals of the Labyrinth, the part of the inner ear which maintains our sense of balance, disrupting its normal function (see Anatomy of the Ear). The Epley Maneuver (see picture below) aims to maneuver the head in ways to coax thoseContinue reading “Dix-Hallpike Test and Epley Maneuver”

Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

Long-standing Diabetes, especially if poorly-controlled (blood sugar often too high) can damage nerves.ย  This is most famous for affecting sensation in the feet (leading to amputations).ย  But it can also affect the Autonomic Nervous System, which controls involuntary function of body organs. If nerves in the gastrointestinal tract donโ€™t work well, a variety of manifestationsContinue reading “Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy”


Very few clinicians besides eye specialists realize how valuable a Pinhole test is.  A pinhole essentially corrects nearsightedness & farsightedness, both classified as “refractive error,” meaning nothing more than that you need glasses.  Light bounces off whatever image we see, carrying its reflection through the lens to land on the retina (upside-down).  Near-sighted eyes areContinue reading “Pinholing”

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