The Circulatory System

Blood travels throughout out body through arteries, veins, and capillaries.  Arteries are firm conduits made of several layers, able to withstand pressure.  They carry blood rich in oxygen (O2) and nutrients.  The Heart pumps blood to our largest artery, the Aorta: xxxxPath of Blood Through the Arteries1. The Ascending Aorta exits the heart,2. Curves inContinue reading “The Circulatory System”

The Eye — Anatomy

The External Eye When you look at someone’s eye, you see the white eyeball which is a tough leathery shell called the Sclera.  That’s covered by a clear membrane called the Conjunctiva, which sometimes turns red if it’s inflamed (conjunctivitis, etc.), or turns yellow (jaundiced) in certain liver diseases.  Light enters the eye through theContinue reading “The Eye — Anatomy”

The Male Genital System — Anatomy

The Male Genital System serves two functions: urination and reproduction.  As opposed to our discussion of the Female Genital System, where the urinary and genital systems are fairly separate, in the Male the organs overlap. Diagram — The Male Genital System In terms of urination, see our Diagram: The Urinary System.ย  In the diagram above,Continue reading “The Male Genital System — Anatomy”

Female Genital System — Anatomy

Figure 1 shows an outside view of the female genitalia, the way clinicians see it in the examination room, with the two lips of skin (Labia Majora and Minora) spread apart.  Note that there are three openings: the Urethra, which leads to the Bladder for urination (Urinary Tract) the Vaginal Opening to the Vagina, whichContinue reading “Female Genital System — Anatomy”

The Urinary System — Anatomy

All our cells use a variety of proteins in order to function.  When proteins break down, a waste product called “urea” is formed, consisting mainly of nitrogen in the form of ammonia.  The Urinary System gets rid of this. See the Diagram below: Our two Kidneys are giant filters; every day, about 30-35 gallons ofContinue reading “The Urinary System — Anatomy”

The Spine & Its Nerves — Anatomy

Our Brain controls everything we do.ย  Nerves run down from and up to the brain for us to move muscles & feel sensations.ย  They’re bundled together in the Spinal Cord, which is housed in the Spinal Column, with a space for it called the Spinal Canal.ย  So at every level of the spine, nerves runContinue reading “The Spine & Its Nerves — Anatomy”


The bowel (small intestine) is held within the abdomen by ligaments and muscles, and the greater omentum membrane (see Diagrams โ€“ Gastrointestinal System).ย  Hernias occur when a part of the bowel slips through this support.ย  Symptoms include both discomfort (not usually pain), and a noticeable lump.ย  It can happen in the groin, in the middleContinue reading “Hernias”

Gastrointestinal System — Anatomy

The Gastrointestinal (G-I) System allows us to obtain water and nutrition for our bodies.  It’s like one long tube (called the “Lumen“) that extends from the mouth to the rectum.  The tube is made of smooth muscle, which is involuntary, so it moves on its own, pushing food onward.  This constant movement of the G-IContinue reading “Gastrointestinal System — Anatomy”

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